In the late 1960s, Joseph Weizenbaum wrote a program at MIT that would mimic natural language. He called this program ELIZA, and it was modelled on Rogerian psychotherapy. This type of therapy is person-centered, meaning the client talks through his/her own issues while the therapist responds to the statements or concerns without necessarily answering or giving advice. This method is meant to help the client find his/her own way towards understanding and solving problems.
Weizenbaum’s ELIZA stirred things up a bit. It begged questions of human vs. artificial intelligence – what does it mean to have language – who or what has the ability to engage in language. Weizenbaum noticed that people reacted very emotionally to ELIZA, depending on the program as a therapist. In response, he wrote Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation in 1976.